The Council of Trent (1545–1563) was a milestone in the history of the Roman Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation, issuing overdue statements and clarifications of the Church's doctrine. The consequences of the Council’s decisions also were significant in regard to the Church's liturgy and practices. Trent not only modernized the institution and its pastoral care, it also gave Catholics a new insight into their identity. The course will deal mainly with this identity formation, which still characterizes the Church today. Therefore, the course will cover the historical road to the Council, its Sessions and the In-between periods, the most important of the Council´s Decrees, its key figures, and its historical Reception with a Retrospective from Vatican II.